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Originalarbeiten (1995-2017):




  • Nair, D.R., J. Chen, J.M.Monteiro, M. Josten, M.G. Pinho, H.-G. Sahl, J. Wu, and A. Cheung. 2017. A quinolinol-based small molecule with anti-MRSA activity that targets bacterial membrane and promotes fermentative metabolism.
    J Antibiot (Tokyo). Epub ahead of print                 
  • Maffioli, S.I., Y. Zhang, D. Degen, T. Carzaniga, G. Del Gatto, S. Serina, P. Monciardini, C. Mazzetti, P. Guglierame, G. Candiani, A.I. Chiriac, G. Facchetti, P. Kaltofen, H.-G. Sahl, G. Dehó, S. Donadio, and R.H. Ebright. 2017. Antibacterial nucleoside-analog inhibitor of bacterial RNA polymerase.
    Cell.  169(7):1240-1248                  
  • Wilmes, M., and H.G. Sahl. 2017. Determination of bacterial membrane impairment by antimicrobial agents.
    Methods Mol Biol. 1520:133-143
  • Raafat, D., N. Leib, M. Wilmes, P. François, J. Schrenzel, and H.-G. Sahl. 2017. Development of in vitro resistance to chitosan is related to changes in cell envelope structure of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Carbohydr Polym. 157:146-155
  • Hardt, P., I. Engels, M. Rausch, M. Gajdiss, H. Ulm, P. Sass, K. Ohlsen, H.-G. Sahl, G. Bierbaum, T. Schneider, F. Grein. 2017. The cell wall precursor lipid II acts as a molecular signal for the Ser/Thr kinase PknB of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Int J Med Microbiol. 307(1):1-10

  • Schuster, D., J. Rickmeyer, M. Gajdiss, T. Thye, S. Lorenzen, M. Reif, M. Josten, C. Szekat, L.D.R. Melo, R.M. Schmithausen, Fl. Liégeois, H.-G. Sahl, J.-P. J. Gonzalez, M. Nagel, G. Bierbaum. 2017. Differentiation of Staphylococcus argenteus (formerly: Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 75) by mass spectrometry from S. aureus using the first strain isolated from a wild African great ape.
    Int J Med Microbiol. 307(1):57-63



  • Müller, A., M. Wenzel, H. Strahl, F. Grein, T.N. Saaki, B. Kohl, T. Siersma, J.E. Bandow, H.-G. Sahl, T. Schneider, and L.W. Hamoen. 2016. Daptomycin inhibits cell envelope synthesis by interfering with fluid membrane microdomains.precursors.
    PNAS. Epub ahead of print
  • Tejesvi, M.V., P. Picart, M. Kajula, H. Hautajärvi, L. Ruddock, H.H. Kristensen, A. Tossi, H.-G. Sahl, S. Ek, S. Mattila, and A.M. Pirttilä. 2016. Identification of antibacterial peptides from endophytic microbiome.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.100(21):9283-9293
  • Kajula, M., J.M. Ward, A. Turpeinen, M.V. Tejesvi, J. Hokkanen, A. Tolonen, H. Häkkänen, P. Picart, J. Ihalainen, H.-G. Sahl, A.M. Pirttilä, and S. Mattila. 2016. Bridged Epipolythiodiketopiperazines from Penicillium raciborskii, an Endophytic Fungus of Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja.
    J Nat Prod. 79(4):685-90
  • Kaczmarczyk, L., E. Labrie-Dion, K. Sehgal, M. Sylvester, M. Skubal, M. Josten, C. Steinhäuser, P. De Koninck, and M. Theis. 2016. New phosphospecific antibody reveals isoform-specific phosphorylation of CPEB3 protein.
    PLoS One 11(2):e0150000
  • A Elnakady, Y., I. Chatterjee, M. Bischoff, M. Rohde, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, M. Herrmann, and R. Müller. 2016. Investigations to the antibacterial mechanism of action of Kendomycin.
    PLoS One 11(1):e0146165
  • Henrich, E., Y. Ma, I. Engels, D. Münch, C. Otten, T. Schneider, B. Henrichfreise, H.-G. Sahl, V. Dötsch, F. Bernhard. 2016. Lipid requirements for the enzymatic activity of MraY translocases and in vitro reconstitution of Lipid II synthesis pathway.
    J Biol Chem. 291(5):2535-46
  • de Gier, M.G., H.B. Albada, M. Josten, R. Willems, H. Leavis, R. van Mansveld, F. L. Paganelli, B. Dekker, J.-W.J. Lammers, H.-G. Sahl and N. Metzler-Nolte. 2016. Synergistic activity of a short lipidated antimicrobial peptide (lipoAMP) and colistin or tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients.
    MedChem Comm. 7:148-156




  • Bauer, J.S., M.G. Ghequire, M. Nett, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, R. De Mot, and H. Gross. 2015. Biosynthetic origin of the antibiotic pseudopyronines A and B in Pseudomonas putida BW11M1.
    Chembiochem. 16(17):2491-7
  • Sahl, H.-G., and Y. Shai. 2015. Preface: Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides.
    Biochim Biophys Acta.1848(11 Pt B):3019-3020
  • Chiriac, A.I., F. Kloss, J. Krämer, C. Vuong, C. Hertweck, and H.-G. Sahl. 2015. Mode of action of closthioamide: the first member of the polythioamide class of bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors.
    J Antimicrob Chemother. 70(9):2576-2588
  • Münch, D., and H.G. Sahl. 2015.  Structural variations of the cell wall precursor lipid II in Gram-positive bacteria - Impact on binding and efficacy of antimicrobial peptides.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 1848(11 Pt B):3062-71
  • Otten, C., S. De Benedetti, A. Gaballah, H. Bühl, A. Klöckner, J. Brauner, H.-G. Sahl, and B. Henrichfreise. 2015. Co-solvents as stabilizing agents during heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli - application to Chlamydial Penicillin-Binding Protein 6.
    PLoS One. 10(4):e0122110
  • Wenzel, M., C.H. Senges, J. Zhang, S. Suleman, M. Nguyen, P. Kumar, A.I. Chiriac, J.J. Stepanek, N. Raatschen, C. May, U. Krämer, H.-G. Sahl, S.K. Straus, and J.E. Bandow. 2015. Antimicrobial peptides from the aurein family form ion-selective pores in Bacillus subtilis.
    Chembiochem 16(7):1101-1108
  • Basi-Chipalu, S., J. Dischinger, M. Josten, C. Szekat, A. Zweynert, H.-G. Sahl, and G. Bierbaum. 2015. Pseudomycoicidin, a class II lantibiotic from Bacillus.
    Appl Environ Microbiol. 81(10):3419-3429
  • Scherer, K.M., J. H. Spille, H.-G. Sahl, F. Grein, and U. Kubitscheck. 2015. The lantibiotic nisin induces lipid II aggregation, causing membrane instability and vesicle budding.
    Biophys J. 108(5):1114-24
  • Maffioli, S.I., P. Monciardini, B. Catacchio, C. Mazzetti, D. Münch, C. Brunati, H.-G. Sahl, and S. Donadio. 2015. Family of Class I Lantibiotics from Actinomycetes and Improvement of Their Antibacterial Activities.
    ACS Chem Biol. 10(4):1034-42
  • Münch, A., I. Engels, A. Müller, K. Reder-Christ, H. Falkenstein-Paul, G. Bierbaum, F. Grein, G. Bendas, H.-G. Sahl, and T. Schneider. 2015. Structural variations of the cell wall precursor lipid II - Influence on binding and activity of the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic oritavancin.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 59(2):772-781


  • Wilmes M., M. Stockem, G. Bierbaum, M. Schlag, F. Götz, D.Q. Tran, J.B. Schaal, A.J. Ouellette, M.E. Selsted, H.-G. Sahl. 2014. Killing of staphylococci by θ-defensins involves membrane impairment and activation of autolytic enzymes.
    Antibiotics (Basel). 3(4):617-631.
  • Essig, A., D. Hofmann, D. Münch, S. Gayathri, M. Künzler, P.T. Kallio, H.-G. Sahl, G. Wider, T. Schneider, and M. Aebi. 2014. Copsin, a novel peptide-based fungal antibiotic interfering with the peptidoglycan synthesis.
    J Biol Chem. 289(50):34953-64

  • Josten,  M., J. Dischinger, C. Szekat, M. Reif, N. Al-Sabti, H.-G. Sahl, M. Parcina, I. Bekeredjian-Ding, and G. Bierbaum. 2014. Identification of agr-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the class A mec complex by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
    Int J Med Microbiol. 304(8):1018-23
  • Liu L.J., Y. Stockdreher, T. Koch, S.T. Sun, Z. Fan, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, Q. Wang, Y. M. Luo, S.J. Liu, C. Dahl, and C.Y. Jiang. 2014. Thiosulfate transfer mediated by DsrE/TusA homologs from acidothermophilic sulfur-oxidizing archaeon Metallosphaera cuprina.
    J Biol Chem. 289(39):26949-59
  • Koch, D.C., T.H. Schmidt, H.-G. Sahl, U. Kubitscheck, and  C. Kandt. 2014. Structural dynamics of the cell wall precursor Lipid II in presence and absence of the lantibiotic nisin.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 1838(12):3061-3068
  • Klöckner, A., C. Otten, A. Derouaux, W. Vollmer, H. Bühl, S. DeBenedetti, D. Münch, M. Josten, K. Mölleken, H.-G. Sahl, and B. Henrichfreise. 2014. AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates.
    Nat Commun. 5:4201
  • Hilmi, D., M. Parcina, D. Stollewerk, J. Ostrop, M. Josten, A. Meilaender, U. Zaehringer, T.A. Wichelhaus, G. Bierbaum, K. Heeg, C. Wolz, and I. Bekeredjian-Ding. 2014. Heterogeneity of host TLR2 stimulation by Staphylococcus aureus isolates.
    PLoS One. 9(5):e96416
  • Cartron, M.L., S.R. England, A.I. Chiriac, M. Josten, R. Turner, Y. Rauter, A. Hurd, H.-G. Sahl, S. Jones, and S.J. Foster. 2014. Analysis of the bactericidal activity of the human skin fatty acid, Cis-6-Hexadecanoic acid on Staphylococcus aureus.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 58(7):3599-3609
  • Wenzel, M., A.I. Chiriac, A. Otto, D. Zweytick, C. May, C. Schumacher, R. Gust, H.B. Albada, M. Penkova, U. Krämer, R. Erdmann, N. Metzler-Nolte, S.K. Straus, E. Bremen, D. Becher, H. Brötz-Oesterhelt, H.-G. Sahl, and J.E. Bandow. 2014. Small cationic antimicrobial peptides delocalize peripheral membrane proteins.
    PNAS 111:12
  • Stockdreher, Y., M. Sturm, M. Josten, H.G. Sahl, N. Dobler, R. Zigann, and C. Dahl. 2014. New proteins involved in sulfur trafficking in the cytoplasm of Allochromatium vinosum.
    J Biol Chem. 289(18):12390-403
  • Münch, D., A. Müller, T. Schneider, B. Kohl, M. Wenzel, J.E. Bandow, S. Maffioli, M. Sosio, S. Donadio, R. Wimmer, and H.G. Sahl. 2014.The lantibiotic NAI-107 binds to bactoprenol bound cell wall precursors and impairs membrane functions.
    J Biol Chem. 289(17):12063-76
  • De Benedetti, S., H. Bühl, A. Gaballah, A. Klöckner, C. Otten, T. Schneider, H.-G. Sahl, and B. Henrichfreise. 2014. Characterization of serine hydroxymethyltransferase GlyA as a potential source of D-alanine in Chlamydia pneumoniae. 
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 4:19
  • Schmitt, Y., M. van der Voort, M. Crüsemann, J. Piel, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, H. Miess, J.M. Raaijmakers, and Harald Gross. 2014. Biosynthetic origin of the antibiotic cyclocarbamate brabantamide A (SB-253514) in plant-associated Pseudomonas.
    Chem Bio Chem.15:259-26
  • Bierbaum, G., and H.-G. Sahl. 2014. The search for new anti-infective drugs: Untapped resources and strategies.  
    Int J Med Microbiol. 304(1):1-2

  • Wilmes, M., and H.-G. Sahl. 2014. Defensin-based anti-infective strategies.
    Int J Med Microbiol. 304(1): 93-99




  • Schreiber, F., C. Szekat, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, and G. Bierbaum. 2013. Antibiotic-induced auto-activation of IS256 in Staphylococcus aureus.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 57(12):6381-6384
  • Hancock, R.E., and H.-G. Sahl. 2013. New strategies and compounds for anti-infective treatment.
    Curr Opin Microbiol. 16(5):519-521
  • Kindrachuk, J., H. Jenssen, M. Elliott, A. Nijnik, L. Magrangeas-Janot, M. Pasupuleti, L. Thorson, S. Ma, D.M. Easton, M. Bains, B. Finlay, E.J. Breukink, H.-G. Sahl, and R.E.W. Hancock. 2013. Manipulation of innate immunity by a bacterial secreted peptide: lantibiotic nisin Z is selectively immunomodulatory.
    Innate Immun. 19:315
  • Augner, D., O. Krut, N. Slavov, D.C. Gerbino, H.-G. Sahl, J. Benting, C.F. Nising, S. Hillebrand, M. Krönke, and H.-G. Schmalz. 2013.On the antibiotic and antifungal activity od Pestalone, Pestalachloride A, and structurally related compounds.
    J Nat Prod. 76(8):1519-1520
  • Scherer, K.,  I. Wiedemann, C. Ciobanasu, H.-G. Sahl, and U. Kubitscheck . 2013. Aggregates of nisin with various bactoprenol-containing cell wall precursors differ in size and membrane permeation capacity.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 1828(11):2628-2636
  • Josten, M., M. Reif, C. Szekat, N. Al-Sabti, T. Roemer, K. Sparbier, M. Kostrzewa, H. Rohde, H.-G. Sahl, and G. Bierbaum. 2013. Analysis of the MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus identifies mutations which allow differentiation of the main clonal lineages.
    J Clin Microbiol. 51(6):1809-1817 
  • Vollmer, J., A. Schiefer, T. Schneider, K. Jülicher, K.L. Johnston, M.J. Taylor, H.-G. Sahl, A. Hoerauf, and K. Pfarr. 2013. Requirement of lipid II biosynthesis for cell division in cell wall-less Wolbachia, endobacteria of arthropods and filarial nematodes.
    Int J Med Microbiol. 303(3): 140-149 
  • Mehnaz, S., R.S. Saleem, B. Yameen, I. Pianet, G. Schnakenburg, H. Pietraszkiewicz, F. Valeriote, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, S.G. Franzblau, and H. Gross. 2013. Lahorenoic acids A-C, ortho-dialkyl-substituted aromatic acids from the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2.
    J Nat Prod. 76:135-141
  • Quiblier, C., A. Luczak-Kadlubowska, E. Holdener, D. Alborn, T. Schneider, I. Wiedemann, M.G. Pinho, H.-G. Sahl, S. Rohrer, B. Berger-Bächi, and M.M. Senn. 2013. The Staphylococcus aureus membrane protein SA2056 interacts with peptidoglycan synthesis enzymes. 
    Antibiotics 2:11-27
  • Bayer, A.S., T. Schneider, and H.-G. Sahl. 2013. Mechanisms of daptomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: role of the cell membrane and cell wall.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1277(1):139-58

  • Arnison, P.G., M.J. Bibb, G. Bierbaum, et al. 2013. Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products: overview and recommendations for a universal nomenclature.
    Nat Prod Rep. 30(1):108-60



  • Albada, H.B, A.I. Chiriac, M. Wenzel, M. Penkova, J.E. Bandow, H.-G. Sahl, and N. Metzler-Nolte. 2012. Modulating the activity of short arginine-tryptophan containing antibacterial peptides with N-terminal metallocenoyl groups.
    Beilstein J Org Chem. 8:1753-64
  • Koyama, N., Y. Tokura, D. Münch, H.-G. Sahl, T. Schneider, Y. Shibagaki, H. Ikeda, and H. Tomoda. 2012. The nonantibiotic small molecule cyslabdan enhances the potency of ß-lactams against MRSA by inhibiting pentaglycine interpeptide bridge synthesis.
    PLoS One. 7(11):e48981
  • Oeemig, J.S., C. Lynggaard, D.H. Knudsen, F.T. Hansen, K.D. Noergaard, T. Schneider, B.S. Vad, D. Sandvang, L.A. Nielsen, S. Neve, H.H. Kristensen, H.-G. Sahl, D.E. Otzen, and R. Wimmer. 2012. Eurocin, a new fungal defensin: structure, lipid binding and its mode of action.
    J Biol Chem. 287(50):42361-72
  • Picart Faiget, P., A.M. Pirtilaa, D. Raventos, H.H. Kristensen, and H.-G. Sahl. 2012. Identification of defensin-encoding genes of Picea glauca: characterization of PgD5, a conserved spruce defensin with strong antifungal activity.
    BMC Plant Biol. 12(1):180
  • Freeman, M.F., C. Gurgui, M.J. Helf, B.I. Morinaka, N.J. Oldham, H.-G. Sahl, S. Matsunaga, and J. Piel. 2012. Metagenome mining reveals polytheonamides as posttranslationally modified ribosomal peptides.
    Science. 338(6105):387-390
  • Roos, C., M. Zocher, D. Müller, D. Münch, T. Schneider, H.-G. Sahl, F. Scholz, J. Wachtveitl, Y. Ma, D. Proverbio, E. Henrich, V. Dötsch, and F. Bernhard. 2012.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 1818(12):3098-3106
  • Wenzel. M., B. Kohl, D. Münch, N. Raatschen, H.B. Albada, L. Hamoen, N. Metzler-Nolte, H.-G. Sahl, and J.E. Bandow. 2012. Proteomic response of Bacillus subtilis to lantibiotics reflects differences in interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 56(11):5749-57
  • Ulm, H., M. Wilmes, Y. Shai, and H.G. Sahl. 2012. Antimicrobial host defensins - specific antibiotic activities and innate defense modulation.
    Front Immunol. 3:249
  • Biswas, R., R.E. Martinez, N. Göhring, M. Schlag, M. Josten, G. Xia, F. Hegler, C. Gekeler, A.K. Gleske, F. Götz, H.-G. Sahl, A. Kappler, and A. Peschel. 2012. Proton-binding capacity of Staphylococcus aureus wall teichonic acid and its role in controlling autolysin activity.
    PLoS One. 7(7):e41415
  • Stockdreher, Y., S.S. Venceslau, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, I.A. Pereira, and C. Dahl. 2012. Cytoplasmic sulfurtransferases in the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum: evidence for sulfur transfer from DsrEFH to DsrC.
    PLoS One. 7(7):e40785
  • Müller, A., D. Münch, Y. Schmidt, K. Reder-Christ, G. Schiffer, G. Bendas, H. Gross, H.-G. Sahl, T. Schneider, H. Brötz-Oesterhelt. 2012. The lipodepsipeptide empedopeptin inhibits cell wall biosynthesis through Ca2+-dependent complex formation with peptidoglycan precursors.
    J Biol Chem. 287(24):20270-20280
  • Müller, A., H. Ulm, K. Reder-Christ, H.-G. Sahl, T. Schneider. 2012. Interaction of type A lantibiotics with undecaprenol-bound cell envelope precursors.
    Microb Drug Resist. 18(3): 261-270
  • Islam, M.R., M. Nishie, J. Nagao, T. Zendo, S. Keller, J. Nakayama, D. Kohda, H.-G. Sahl, K. Sonomoto. 2012. RingA of Nukacin ISK-1: A lipid II-binding motif for type-A(II) lantibiotic.
    J Am Chem Soc.134(8):3687-3690
  • Münch, D., T. Roemer, S.H. Lee, M. Engeser, H.-G. Sahl, T. Schneider. 2012. Identification and in vitro analysis of the GatD/MurT enzyme-complex catalyzing lipid II amidation in Staphylococcus aureus.
    PLoS Pathog. 8(1): e1002509
  • Kumar, S., S. Singh, D. Hinze, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, M. Siepmann, and J. Walter. 2012. Phosphorylation of the amyloid-ß peptide at serine 8 attenuates its clearance via insulin degrading and angiotensin converting enzymes.
    J Biol Chem. 287(11): 8641-8651
  •  Arnusch C.J., H.B. Albada, M. van Vaardegem, R.M. Liskamp, H.-G. Sahl, Y. Shadkchan, N. Osherov, and Y. Shai. 2012. Trivalent ultrashort lipopeptides are potent pH dependent antifungal agents.
    J Med Chem. 55(3):1296-1302
  • Arnusch, C.J., H. Ulm, M. Josten, Y.Shadkchan, N. Osherov, H.-G. Sahl, and Y. Shai. 2012. Ultrashort peptide bioconjugates are exclusively antifungal agents and synergize with Cyclodextrin and Amphotericin B.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 56(1):1-9



  • Sass, P., M. Josten, K. Famulla, G. Schiffer, H.-G. Sahl, L. Hamoen, and H. Brötz-Oesterhelt. 2011. Antibiotic acyldepsipeptides activate ClpP peptidase to degrade the cell division protein FtsZ.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108(42): 17474-17479
  • Gaballah, A., A. Kloeckner, C. Otten, H.-G. Sahl, and B. Henrichfreise. 2011. Functional analysis of the cytoskeleton protein MreB from Chlamydophila pneumoniae. PLoS One. 6(10): e25129
  • Ma, Y., D. Münch, T. Schneider, H.-G. Sahl, A. Bouhss, U. Ghoshdastider, J. Wang, V. Dötsch, X. Wang, and F. Bernhard. 2011. Preparative scale cell-free production and quality optimization of MraY homologues in different expression modes.
    J Biol Chem. 286(45): 38844-38853
  • Reder-Christ, K., Y. Schmidt, M. Dörr, H.-G. Sahl, M. Josten, J.M. Raaijmakers, H. Gross, and G. Bendas. 2011. Model membrane studies for characterization of different antibiotic activities of lipopeptides from Pseudomonas.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 1818(3):566-573.
  • Herzner, A.M., J. Dischinger, C. Szekat, M. Josten, S. Schmitz, A. Yakéléba, R. Reinartz, A. Jansen, H.-G. Sahl, J. Piel and G. Bierbaum. 2011. Expression of the Lantibiotic Mersacidin in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42.
    PloS One.6(7):e22389
  • Rubinchik, E., T. Schneider, M. Elliott, W.R. Scott, J. Pan, C. Anklin, H. Yang, D. Dugourd, A. Müller, K. Gries, S.K. Straus, H.-G. Sahl, and R.E. Hancock. 2011. Mechanism of action and limited cross-resistance of new lipopeptide MX-2401. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.55(6):2743-54
  • Wilmes, M., B.P. Cammue, H.-G. Sahl and K.Thevissen. 2011. Antibiotic activities of host defense peptides: more to it than lipid bilayer perturbation.
    Nat Prod Rep.28(8):1350-8
  • Elsebai, M.F., S. Kehraus, U. Lindequist, F. Sasse, S. Shaaban, M. Gütschow, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, and G.M. König. 2011. Antimicrobial phenalenone derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Coniothyrium cereale.
    Org Biomol Chem. 7:802-808 



  • Schmitt, P., M. Wilmes, M. Pugnière, A. Aumelas, E. Bachère, H.-G. Sahl, T. Schneider, and D. Destoumieux-Garzón. 2010. Insight into invertebrate defensin mechanism of action: oyster defensins inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis by binding to lipid II.
    J Biol Chem. 285:29208-29216
  • Schneider, T., T. Kruse, R. Wimmer, I. Wiedemann, V. Sass, U. Pag, A. Jansen, A.K. Nielsen, P.H. Mygind, D.S. Raventós, S. Neve, B. Ravn, A.M.J.J. Bonvin, L. De Maria, A.S. Andersen, L.K. Gammelgaard, H.-G. Sahl, and H-H. Kristensen. 2010. Plectasin, a fungal defensin, targets the bacterial cell wall precursor lipidII.
    Science 328:1168-1172
  • Sass, V., T. Schneider, M. Wilmes, C. Körner, A. Tossi, N. Novikova, O. Shamova, and H.-G. Sahl. 2010. Human beta-defensin 3 inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in staphylococci.
    Infect Immun. 78:2793-80
  • Schneider, T. and H.-G. Sahl. 2010. Lipid II and other bactoprenol-bound cell wall precursors as drug targets.
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 11:157-164
  • Schneider, T. and H.-G. Sahl. 2010. An oldie but a goodie – cell wall biosynthesis as an antibiotic target pathway.
    Int J Med Microbiol. 300:161-169
  • Then, R. and H.-G. Sahl. 2010. Anti-infective strategies of the future: is there room for species-specific antibacterial agents?
    Curr Pharm Des. 16:555-566



  • Pietiainen,M., P. Francois, H.L. Hyyrylainen, M. Tangomo, V. Sass, H.-G. Sahl, J. Schrenzel, and V. P. Kontinen. 2009. Transcriptome analysis of the responses of Staphylococcus aureus to antimicrobial peptides and characterization of the roles of vraDE and vraSR in antimicrobial resistance.
    BMC Genomics. 10:429
  • Henrichfreise, B., A. Schiefer, T. Schneider, E. Nzukou, C. Poellinger, T.-J. Hoffmann, K. L. Johnston, K. Moelleken, I. Wiedemann, K. Pfarr, A. Hoerauf, and H.-G. Sahl. 2009. Functional conservation of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway in the cell wall-less bacteria Chlamydia and Wolbachia: why is lipid II needed?
    Mol Microbiol 73:913-923
  • Marklein, G., M. Josten, U. Klanke, E. Müller, R. Horré, T. Maier, T. Wenzel, M. Kostrzewa, G. Bierbaum, A. Hoerauf, and H.-G. Sahl. 2009. MALDI - TOF mass-spectrometry for fast and reliable identification of clinical yeast isolates.
    J Clin Microbiol.47:2912-2917
  • Dischinger, J., M. Josten, C. Szekat, H.-G. Sahl, and G. Bierbaum. 2009. Production of the Novel Two-Peptide Lantibiotic Lichenicidin by Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13.
    PloS One.4:e4344
  • Antcheva N, F. Morgera, L. Creatti, L. Vaccari, U. Pag, S. Pacor, Y. Shai, H.-G. Sahl and A. Tossi. 2009. Artificial beta-defensin based on a minimal defensin template.
    Biochem J. 421:435-447
  • Böttiger, T., T. Schneider, B. Martínez, H.-G. Sahl, I. Wiedemann. 2009. The influence of Ca2+ ions on the activity of lantibiotics containing a mersacidin-like lipid II binding motif.
    Appl Environ. Microbiol. 75:4427-4434
  • Schneider, T., K. Gries, M. Josten, I. Wiedemann, S. Pelzer, H. Labischinski and H.-G. Sahl. 2009. The lipopeptide antibiotic Friulimicin B inhibits cell wall biosynthesis through complex formation with bactoprenol-phosphate.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 53:1610-1618 
  • Shamova, O., D. Orlov, C. Stegemann, P. Czihalk, R. Hoffmann, K. Brogden, N. Kolodkin, G. Sakuta, A. Tossi, H.-G. Sahl, K. Kokryakov and R.I. Lehrer. 2009. ChBac3.4: A novel proline-rich antimicrobial peptide from goat leukocytes.
    International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics. 15:1573-3149
  • Raafat, D. and H.-G. Sahl. 2009. Chitosan and its antimicrobial potential — A critical literature survey.
    Microbial Biotechnology. 2:186-201
  • Bierbaum, G. and H.-G. Sahl. 2009. Lantibiotics: Mode of action, biosynthesis and bioengineering.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.10:2-18 



  • Sahl, H.-G. and G. Bierbaum. 2008. Multiple activities in natural antimicrobials.
    Microbe. 3:467-473
  • Christ, K., S. El-Kaddah, I. Wiedemann, B. Rattay, H.-G. Sahl and G. Bendas. 2008. Membrane lipid constituents determine the antibiotic activity of the lantibiotic gallidermin.
    J Membr Biol. 226:1432-1424
  • Sass, P., A. Jansen, C. Szekat, V. Sass, H.-G. Sahl and G. Bierbaum. 2008. The lantibiotic mersacidin is a strong inducer of the cell wall stress response of Staphylococcus aureus.
    BMC Microbiology 8:186
  • Martínez, B., T. Böttiger, T. Schneider, A. Rodríguez, H.-G. Sahl, and I. Wiedemann. 2008. The unmodified bacteriocin lactococcin 972 specifically interacts with the cell wall precursor lipid II .
    Appl Environ Microbiol. 74:4666-4670
  • Rosenfeld Y., H.-G. Sahl, Y. Shai. 2008. Parameters Involved in Antimicrobial and Endotoxin Detoxification Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides.
  • Raafat, D., K. von Bargen, A. Haas, and H.-G. Sahl. 2008. Insights into the Mode of Action of Chitosan as an Antibacterial Compound.
    Appl Environ Microbiol. 74:3764-3773.
  • Pag, U., M. Oedenkoven, V. Sass, Y. Shai, O. Shamova, N. Antcheva, A. Tossi, and H.-G. Sahl. 2008. Analysis of in vitro activities and modes of action of synthetic antimicrobial peptides derived from an α-helical “sequence template”.
    J Antimicrob Chemother. 61:341-352.
  • Sass, V., U. Pag, A. Tossi, G. Bierbaum, and H.-G. Sahl. 2008. Mode of action of human ß-defensin 3 (hBD3) against Staphylococcus aureus and transcriptional analysis of responses to defensin challenge.
    Int. J Med Microbiology. 298:619-633.
  • Jones, T., M.R. Yeaman, G. Sakoulas, S.J. Yang, R.A. Proctor, H.-G. Sahl, J. Schrenzel, Y.Q. Xiong, and A.S. Bayer. 2008. Failures in clinical treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection with daptomycin are associated with alterations in surface charge, membrane phospholipid asymmetry, and drug binding.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 52:269-278. 



  • Henrichfreise, B., I. Wiegand, I. Luhmer-Becker, and B. Wiedemann. 2007. Development of resistance in wild-type and hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exposed to clinical pharmacokinetic profiles of meropenem and ceftazidime simulated in vitro.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 51:3642-3649.
  • Henrichfreise, B., I. Wiegand, W. Pfister, and B. Wiedemann. 2007. Resistance mechanisms of multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from Germany and correlation with hypermutation.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 51:4062-4070.
  • Christ K., I. Wiedemann, U. Bakowsky, H.-G. Sahl, and G. Bendas. 2007. The role of lipid II in membrane binding of and pore formation by nisin analyzed by two combined biosensor techniques.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 1768:694-704.



  • Hancock, R.E.W., and H.-G. Sahl. 2006. Antimicrobial and host defense peptides as novel anti-infective therapeutic strategies.
    Nature Biotechnology 24:1551-1557.
  • Sahl, H.-G. 2006. Optimizing antimicrobial host defense peptides.
    Chem Biol 13:1015-1017.
  • Steffen, H., S. Rieg, I. Wiedemann, H. Kalbacher, M. Degg, H.-G. Sahl, A. Peschel, F. Götz, C. Garbe, and B. Schittek. 2006. Naturally processed dermcidin-derived peptides do not permeabilize bacterial membranes and kill microorganisms irrespective of their charge.
    Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:2608-2620.
  • Peschel, A., and H.-G. Sahl. 2006. The co-evolution of host cationic antimicrobial peptides and microbial resistance.
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:529-536.
  • Burak, S., S. Engelhart, M. Exner, G. Marklein, I. Purr, C. Putensen, I. Wiegand, and B. Wiedemann. 2006. Nosokomiale Ausbrüche multiresistenter Klebsiella-pneumoniae-Stämme auf Intensivstationen.
    Chemother Journal. 4:112-118. 
  • Wiedemann, I., T. Böttiger, R.R. Bonelli, A. Wiese, S.O. Hagge, R. Gutsmann, U. Seydel, L. Deegan, C. Hill, P. Ross, and H.-G. Sahl. 2006. The mode of action of the lantibiotic lacticin 3147 - a complex mechanism involving specific interaction of two peptides and the cell wall precursor lipid II.
    Mol Microbiol. 61:285-296. 
  • Wiedemann, I., T. Böttiger, R.R. Bonelli, T. Schneider, H.-G. Sahl, and B. Martinez. 2006. Lipid II-based antimicrobial activity of the lantibiotic plantaricinC. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:2809-2814.
  • Chatterjee, I., G.A. Somerville, C. Heilmann, H.-G. Sahl, H.H. Maurer, and M. Herrmann. 2006. Very low ethanol concentrations affect the viability and growth recovery in post-stationary-phase Staphylococcus aureus populations.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:2627-2636. 
  • Bonelli, R.R., T. Schneider, H.-G. Sahl, and I. Wiedemann. 2006. Insights into in vivo activities of lantibiotics from gallidermin and epidermin mode-of-action studies.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 50:1449-1457. 
  • Bayer, A.S., P. McNamara, M.R. Yeaman, N. Lucindo, T. Jones, A.L. Cheung, H.-G. Sahl, and R.A. Proctor. 2006. Transposon disruption of the complex I NADH oxidoreductase gene (snoD) in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with reduced susceptibility to the microbicidal activity of thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1.
    J Bacteriol. 188:211-222.
  • Henrichfreise, B., I. Wiegand, J. Wagner, and Wiedemann B. 2006. VIM-Metallo-Beta-Lactamase bei Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    Chemotherapie Journal 1:17-19. 



  • Brötz-Oesterhelt, H., D. Beyer, H.-P. Kroll, R. Endermann, C. Ladel, W. Schroeder, B. Hinzen, S. Raddatz, H. Paulsen, K. Henninger, J.E. Bandow, H.-G. Sahl, and H. Labischinski. 2005. Dysregulation of bacterial proteolytic machinery by a new class of antibiotics.
    Nat Med. 11:1082-1087.
  • Zelezetsky, I., U. Pag, H.-G. Sahl, and A. Tossi. 2005. Tuning the biological properties of amphipathic alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides: rational use of minimal amino acid substitution.
    Peptides 26:23682376.
  • Schiefer, A.M., I. Wiegand, K.J. Sherwood, B. Wiedemann, and I. Stock. 2005. Biochemical and genetic characterization of the beta-lactamases of Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii and "Y. ruckeri" strains.
    Int J Antimicrob Agents. 25:496-500.
  • Henrichfreise B, I. Wiegand, K.J. Sherwood, and B. Wiedemann. 2005. Detection of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Germany.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 49:1668-1669.
  • Zelezetsky, I., S. Pacor, U. Pag, N. Papo, Y. Shai, H.-G. Sahl, and A. Tossi. 2005. Controlled alteration of the shape and conformational stability of α-helical cell-lytic peptides: effect on mode of action and cell specificity.
    Biochem J. 390:177-188.
  • Zelezetsky, I., U. Pag, N. Antcheva, H.-G. Sahl, and A. Tossi. 2005. Identification and optimization of an antimicrobial peptide from the ant venom toxin pilosulin.
    Arch Biochem Biophys 434:358-364.
  • Sahl, H.-G., U. Pag, S. Bonness, S. Wagner, N. Antcheva, and A. Tossi. 2005. Mammalian defensins: structures and mechanism of antibiotic activity.
    J Leukoc Biol. 77:466-475. 



  • Kruszewska, D., H.-G. Sahl, G. Bierbaum, U. Pag, S.O. Hynes, and Å. Ljungh. 2004. Mersacidin eradicates methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a mouse rhinitis model.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54: 648-653.
  • Wiegand, I., and S. Burak. 2004. Effect of inoculum density on susceptibility of Plesiomonas shigelloides to cephalosporins.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:418-423.
  • Schneider, T., M.M. Senn, B. Berger-Bächi, A. Tossi, H.-G. Sahl, and I. Wiedemann. 2004. In vitro assembly of the complete, pentaglycine interpeptide bridge containing cell wall precursor (lipid II-Gly5) of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Mol Microbiol. 53:675-685.
  • Hoffmann, A., T. Schneider, U. Pag, and H.-G. Sahl. 2004. Localisation and functional analysis of PepI, the immunity peptide of the Pep5 producing Staphylococcus epidermidis 5.
    Appl Environ Microbiol. 70:3263-3271.
  • Wiedemann, I., R. Benz, and H.-G. Sahl. 2004. Lipid II-mediated pore formation by the peptide antibiotic nisin: a black lipid membrane study.
    J Bacteriol. 10:3259-3261.
  • Pag, U., M. Oedenkoven, N. Papo, Z. Oren, Y. Shai, and H.-G. Sahl. 2004. In vitro activity and mode of action of diastereomeric antimicrobial peptides against bacterial clinical isolates.
    J Antimicrob Chemother. 53: 230-239. 
  • Staubitz, P., H. Neumann, T. Schneider, I. Wiedemann, and A. Peschel. 2004. MprF-mediated biosynthesis of lysylphosphatidylglycerol, an important determinant in staphylococcal defensin resistance.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett. 231: 67-71. 



  • Schaaff, F., G. Bierbaum, N. Baumert, P. Bartmann, and H.-G. Sahl. 2003. Mutations are involved in emergence of aminoglycoside-induced small colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Int J Med Microbiol. 293:427-435.
  • Hsu, S.T., E. Breukink, G. Bierbaum, H.-G. Sahl, B. de Kruijff, R. Kaptein, N.A. van Nuland, and A.M. Bonvin. 2003. NMR study of mersacidin and lipid II interaction in DPC micelles: Conformational changes are a key to antimicrobial activity.
    J Biol Chem. 278:13110-13117. 
  • Fang, X.M., Q. Shu, Q.X. Chen, M. Book, H.-G. Sahl, A. Hoeft, and F. Stuber. 2003. Differential expression of alpha- and beta-defensins in human peripheral blood.
    Eur J Clin Invest. 33:82-87. 



  • Baumert, N., C. von Eiff, F. Schaaff, G. Peters, R.A. Proctor, and H.-G. Sahl. 2002. Physiology and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants.
    Microb Drug Resist. 8:253-60.
  • Netz, D.J.A., M.C.F. Bastos, and H.-G. Sahl. 2002. Mode of action of the antimicrobial peptide aureocin A53 from Staphylococcus aureus.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:5274-5280. 
  • Hechard, Y., and H.-G. Sahl. 2002. Mode of action of modified and unmodified bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria.
    Biochimie 84:545-557.
  • Hoffmann, A., U. Pag, I. Wiedemann, and H.-G. Sahl. 2002. Combination of antibiotic mechanisms in lantibiotics.
    Il Farmaco 57:685-691. 
  • Papo, N., Z. Oren, U. Pag, H.G. Sahl, and Y. Shai. 2002. The consequence of sequence alteration of an amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptide and its diastereomers.
    J Biol Chem 277:33913-33921. 
  • Netz, D.J.A., R. Pohl, A.G. Beck-Sickinger, T. Selmer, A.J. Pierik, C. Bastos Md Mdo, and H.-G. Sahl. 2002. Biochemical characterization and genetic analysis of aureocin A53, a new, atypical bacteriocin from Staphylococcus aureus.
    J Mol Biol 319:745-756. 
  • Pag, U., and H.-G. Sahl. 2002. Multiple activities in lantibiotics - models for the design of novel antibiotics?
    Curr Pharm Design 8:815-833. 
  • Guder, A., T. Schmitter, I. Wiedemann, H.-G. Sahl, and G. Bierbaum. 2002. Role of the single regulator MrsR1 and the two-component system MrsR2/K2 in the regulation of mersacidin production and immunity.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 106-113.



  • Netz, D.J., H.-G. Sahl, R. Marcolino, J. dos Santos Nascimento, S.S. de Oliveira, M.B. Soares, and M. do Carmo de Freire Bastos. 2001. Molecular characterisation of Aureocin A70, a multi-peptide bacteriocin isolated from Staphylococcus aureus.
    J Mol Biol 311:939-949. 
  • Wiedemann, I., E. Breukink, C. van Kraaij C., O.P. Kuipers, G. Bierbaum, B. de Kruijff, and H.-G. Sahl. 2001. Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis for potent antibiotic activity.
    J Biol Chem 276:1772-1779.



  • Kistemann, T., F. Dangendorf, L. Krizek, H.-G. Sahl, S. Engelhart, and M. Exner. 2000. GIS-supported investigation of a nosocomial Salmonella outbreak.
    Int J Hyg Environ Med. 203:117-126.
  • Guder, A., I. Wiedemann, and H.-G. Sahl. 2000. Posttranslationally modified bacteriocins - the lantibiotics.
    Biopolymers 55:62-73.
  • Brötz, H., and H.-G. Sahl. 2000. New insights into the mechanism of action of lantibiotics - diverse biological effects by binding to the same molecular target.
    J Antimicrob Chemother. 46:1-6. 
  • Beukes, M., G. Bierbaum, H.-G. Sahl, and J.W. Hastings. 2000. Purification and partial characterization of a murein hydrolase, millericin B produced by Streptococcus milleri NMSCC 061.
    Appl Environ Mircrobiol. 66:23-28.



  • Ryan, M.P., R.W. Jack, M. Josten, H.-G. Sahl, G. Jung, R.P. Ross, and C. Hill. 1999. Extensive post-translational modification, including serine to D-alanine conversion, in the two-component lantibiotic, lacticin 3147.
    J Biol Chem. 275: 37544-37550. 
  • Breukink, E., I. Wiedemann, C. van Kraaij, O.P. Kuipers, H.-G. Sahl, and B. de Kruijff. 1999. Use of cell wall precursor lipid II by a pore-forming peptide antibiotic.
    Science 286:2361-2364. 
  • Fang, X.M., M. Book, H.-G. Sahl, J. Hoch, T. v. Spiegel, A. Hoeft, and F. Stüber. 1999. Differential expression of alpha- and beta-defensin genes in human perpheral blood.
    Critical Care Medicine 27:70.
  • Bierbaum, G., K. Fuchs, W. Lenz, C. Szekat, and H.-G. Sahl. 1999. Presence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in Germany.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 18:691-696. 
  • Navaratna, M.A., H.-G. Sahl, and J.R. Tagg. 1999. Identification of genes encoding two-component lantibiotic production in Staphylococcus aureus C55 and other phage group II S. aureus strains and demonstration of an association with the exfoliative toxin B gene.
    Infect Immun. 67:4268-4271. 
  • Pag, U., C. Heidrich, G. Bierbaum, and H.-G. Sahl. 1999. Molecular analysis of expression of the lantibiotic Pep5 immunity phenotype.
    Appl Environ Microbiol. 65:591-598.




  • Sahl, H.-G., and G. Bierbaum. 1998. Lantibiotics: biosynthesis and biological activities of uniquely modified peptides from gram-positive bacteria.
    Annu Rev Microbiol. 52:41-79.
  • Navaratna, M.A., H.-G. Sahl, and J.R. Tagg. 1998. Two-component anti-Staphylococcus aureus lantibiotic activity produced by Staphylococcus aureus C55.
    Appl Environ Microbiol. 64:4803-4808.
  • Brötz, H., M. Josten, I. Wiedemann, U. Schneider, F. Götz, G. Bierbaum, and H.-G. Sahl. 1998. Role of lipid-bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics.
    Mol Microbiol. 30:317-327. 
  • Heidrich, C., U. Pag, M. Josten, J. Metzger, R.W. Jack, G. Bierbaum, G. Jung, and H.-G. Sahl. 1998. Isolation, characterization, and heterologous expression of the novel lantibiotic epicidin 280 and analysis of its biosynthetic gene cluster.
    Appl Environ Microbiol. 64:3140-3146.
  • Brötz, H., G. Bierbaum, K. Leopold, P.E. Reynolds, and H.-G. Sahl. 1998. The lantibiotic mersacidin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis by targeting lipid II.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 42:154-160. 
  • Kraft, C., M. Hansis, M.D. Menger, H.-G. Sahl, and B. Vollmar. 1998. Extent of bacterial contamination is a determinant for microvascular damage in soft tissue infection.
    Langenbecks Arch Chir Suppl Kongressbd. 115:31-32.



  • Brötz, H., G. Bierbaum, P.E. Reynolds, and H.-G. Sahl. 1997. The lantibiotic mersacidin inhibits peptidoglycan biosynthesis at the level of transglycosylation.
    Eur J Biochem. 246:193-199.
  • Neis, S., G. Bierbaum, M. Josten, U. Pag, C. Kempter, G. Jung, and H.-G. Sahl. 1997. Effect of leader peptide mutations on biosynthesis of the lantibiotic Pep5.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett. 149:249-255.



  • Proctor, R. A., O. Vesgar, M.F. Otten, S.P. Koo, M.R. Yeaman, H.-G. Sahl, and A.S. Bayer. 1996. Staphylococcus aureus smal colony variants cause persistant and resistant infections.
    Chemotherapy 42:47-52.
  • Booth, M.C., C.P. Bogie, H.-G. Sahl, R.J. Siezen, K.L. Hatter, and M.S. Gilmore. 1996. Structural analysis and proteolytic activation of Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin.
    Mol Microbiol. 21:1175-1184.
  • Molitor, E., C. Kluczny, H. Brötz, G. Bierbaum, R.W. Jack, and H.-G. Sahl. 1996. Effects of the lantibiotic mersacidin on the morphology of staphylococci.
    Zentralbl Bakteriol. 284:318-328.
  • Israil, A.M., R.W. Jack, G. Jung, and H.-G. Sahl. 1996. Isolation of a new epidermin variant from two strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis-frequency of lantibiotic production in coagulase-negative staphylococci.
    Zentralbl Bakteriol. 284:285-296.
  • Heidrich, C., K. Hantke, G. Bierbaum, and H.-G. Sahl. 1996. Identification and analysis of a gene cluster encoding a Fur-like protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett. 140:253-259.
  • Koo, S.P., A.S. Bayer, H.-G. Sahl, R.A. Proctor, and M.R. Yeaman. 1996. Staphylocidal action of thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein is not solely dependent on transmembrane potential.
    Infect Immun. 64:1070-1074. 
  • Kuipers, O.P., G. Bierbaum, B. Otternwälder, H.M. Dodd, N. Horn, J. Metzger, T. Kupke, V. Gnau, R. Bongers, P. van den Bogaard, H. Kosters, H.S. Rollema, W.M. de Vos, R.J. Siezen, G. Jung, F. Götz, H.-G. Sahl, and M.J. Gasson. 1996. Protein engineering of lantibiotics.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 69:161-169. Review.
  • Saris, P.E., T. Immonen, M. Reis, and H.-G. Sahl. 1996.
    Immunity to lantibiotics.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 69: 151-159.
  • Bierbaum, G., F. Götz, A. Peschel, T. Kupke, M. van de Kamp, and H.-G. Sahl. 1996. The biosynthesis of the lantibiotics epidermin, gallidermin, Pep5, and epilancin K7.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 69:119-127.
  • Bierbaum, G., C. Szekat, M. Josten, C. Heidrich, C. Kempter, G. Jung, and H.-G. Sahl. 1996. Engineering of a novel thioether bridge and role of modfied residues in the lantibiotic Pep5.
    Appl Environ Microbiol. 62:385-392.



  • Jack, R.W., G. Bierbaum, C. Heidrich, and H.-G. Sahl. 1995. The genetics of lantibiotic biosynthesis.
    Bioassays 17:793-802.
  • Meyer, C., G. Bierbaum, C. Heidrich, M. Reis, J. Süling, M.I. Iglesias-Wind, C. Kempter, E. Molitor, and H.-G. Sahl. 1995. Nucleotide sequence of the lantibiotic Pep5 biosynthesis gene cluster and functional analysis of PepP and PepC. Evidence for a role of PepC in thioether formation.
    Eur J Biochem. 232:478-489.
  • Jack, R.W., and H.-G. Sahl. 1995. Unique peptide modifications involved in the biosynthesis of lantibiotics.
    Trends Biotechnol. 13:269-278.
  • Sahl, H.-G., R.W. Jack, and G. Bierbaum. 1995. Biosynthesis and biological activities of lantibiotics with unique post-translational modifications.
    Eur J Biochem. 230:827-853.
  • van de Kamp, M., H.W. van den Hooven, R.N. Konings, G. Bierbaum, H.-G. Sahl, O.P. Kuipers, R.J. Siezen, W.M. de Vos, C.W. Hilbers, and F.J. van de Ven. 1995. Elucidation of the primary structure of the lantibiotic epilancin K7 from Staphylococcus epidermidis K7. Cloning and characterization of the epilancin-K7-encoding gene and NMR analysis of mature epilancin K7.
    Eur J Biochem. 230:587-600.
  • Bierbaum, G., H. Brötz, K.P. Koller, and H.-G. Sahl. 1995. Cloning, sequencing and production of the lantibiotic mersacidin.
    FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 127:121-126.
  • Brötz, H., G. Bierbaum, A. Markus, E. Molitor, and H.-G. Sahl. 1995. Mode of action of the lantibiotic mersacidin: inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis via a novel mechanism?
    Antimicrob Agents Chemther. 39:714-719. 
  • Driessen, A.J., van den Hooven, W. Kuiper, M. van de Kamp, H.-G. Sahl, R.N.H. Konings, and W.N. Konings. 1995. Mechanistic studies of lantibiotic-induced permeabilization of phospholipid vesicles.
    Biochemistry 34:1606-1614.
  • van de Kamp, M., L.M. Horstink, H.W. van den Hooven, R.N. Konings, C.W. Hilbers, A. Frey, H.-G. Sahl, J.W. Metzger, F.J. van de Ven. 1995. Sequence analysis by NMR spectroscopy of the peptide lantibiotic epilancin K7 from Staphylococcus epidermidis K7.
    Eur J Biochem. 227:757-771.




  • Bonelli, R.R., I. Wiedemann, and H.-G. Sahl. 2006. Lantibiotics, p. 97-105. In: A. Kastin (ed.), Handbook of biologically active peptides. Elsevier. ISBN: 0-12-369442-6.
  • Pag, U., and H.-G. Sahl. 2002. Lanthionine-containing bacterial peptides, p. 47-80. In: C.J. Dutton, M.A. Haxell, H.A.I McArthur, R.G. Wax (eds.), Peptide antibiotics - discovery, modes of action, and applications.
    Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, Basel. ISBN: 0-8247-0245-X.
  • Pag, U., and H.-G. Sahl. 2001. Molecular interactions involved in bactericidal activities of lantibiotics, p. 205-214. In: K. Lohner (ed.), Development of Novel Antimicrobial Agents: Emerging strategies. Horizon Scientific Press.
  • Jack, R.W., G. Bierbaum, and H.-G. Sahl. 1998. Translocator-associated bacteriocin leader peptidases, p. 768-770. In: A.J. Barrett, N.D. Rawlings, J.F. Woessner (eds.), Handbook of proteolytic enzymes. Academic Press.
  • Bierbaum, G., R.W. Jack, and H.-G. Sahl. 1998. Lantibiotic leader peptidases, p. 329-330. In: A.J. Barrett, N.D. Rawlings, J.F. Woessner (eds.), Handbook of proteolytic enzymes. Academic Press.
  • Bierbaum, G., H. Brötz, and H.-G. Sahl 1997. Lanthionine-containing antibiotic peptides (lantibiotics): Features, functions and prespectives. Biospektrum 2:51-55.




  • Jack, R.W., G. Bierbaum, and H.-G. Sahl. 1998. Lantibiotics and related peptides. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. ISBN: 3-540-63600-5
  • Jung, G., and H.-G. Sahl. 1991. Nisin and Novel Lantibiotics. ESCOM Verlag, Leiden, Niederlande. ISBN: 90-72199-11-1